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法律名称英译若干问题

人有姓名,如张大,王小,陈新;法律(广义)自然亦有其名称,如**法,хх条例,…办法…。法律名称之英译有其特殊性,自然亦有其特殊问题。那么法律名称之英译实践存在着哪些问题呢?
  首先是同一法律名称,有的译作如此,有的却译作那般,在英语读者看来,有两种英译的同一名称的同一个法,按英语读来竟判若两法,如:
  1、原文:中华人民共和国民法通则
  译文:甲: General Rules of the Civil Law of the People's Republic of China
  -Shanghai's Foreign Economic Rules and Regulations(1991-1992), Shanghai Far East Publishers 1994, P.15
  乙: General Principles of the Civil Law of the People's Republic of China
  -Laws and Regulations of the People's Republic of China Governing Foreign-Related Matters(1949-1990). Legal System Publishing House Beijing China 1991, P.33
  按:虽仅“rules”与“principles”一字之差, 亦已毫厘千里矣。民法的原则不是“民法”本身!
  2.原文:中华人民共和国中外合资经营企业法
  译文:甲:Law of the People's Republic of China on Chinese-Foreign Joint Ventures
  -同上甲
  乙: Law of the People's Republic of China on Chinese-Foreign Equity Joint Ventures
  -同上乙
  3.原文:中华人民共和国中外合作经营企业法
  译文:甲: Law of the People's Republic of China on Chinese-Foreign Cooperative Ventures
  -同上甲
  乙: Law of the People's Republic of China on Chinese-Foreign Contractual Joint Ventures
  -同上乙, P. 50 下
  4.原文:中华人民共和国外资企业法
  译文:甲:Law of the People's Republic of China on Foreign Enterprises
  -同上甲
  乙: Law of the People's Republic of China on Foreign Capital Enterprises
  -同上乙, P. 489
  按:“foreign enterprises”可以是绝对地“foreign”的企业(包括身为外国法人的企业),其内涵要比今汉语“外资企业”大!
5.原文:中华人民共和国海关对进出上海外高桥保税区货物、运输工具和个人携带物品的管理办法。
  译文:甲: Procedures of the Customs of the People's Republic of China for the Control over the Goods, Means of Transport and Personal Articles Entering or Leaving the Shanghai Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone
  -同上甲(1994版)
  乙: Measures of the Customs of the People's Republic of China Concerning the Administration of the Goods, Means of Transport and Articles Carried by Individuals to be Brought into or out of the Bonded Area of Outer Gaoqiao in Shanghai
  -同上乙(1991版)
  按:由出版年份看,甲译作于乙译作后三年,在其下划线印刷部分,分明是在同乙译中也用斜体印刷的相应部分唱对台戏,似乎是在搞两家争鸣,在愚弄不通汉语只懂英语的读者。何苦呢?
  6.原文:中华人民共和国归侨、侨眷权益保护法
  译文:甲: Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of the Rights and Interests of Returned Overseas Chinese and Their Relatives
  -Shanghai's Foreign Economic Rules and Regulations(1991-1992), Shanghai Far East Publishers 1994, p.47
  乙: Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Returned Overseas Chinese and the Family Members of Overseas Chinese
  -Laws and Regulations of the People's Republic of China Governing Foreign-Related Matters, China Legal System Publishing House, Beijing 1991, p.1945.
  按:细心的读者一定发现了,以上甲、乙两译不仅文字不同——其内涵也有50%大相径庭。按汉语原文,保护对象侨是“归侨”和“侨(不问归与不归)的眷”,译文甲的内涵却是以“归侨”和“归侨的(Their)亲眷(Relatives)”为保护对象的;按译文乙,则其所内涵的对象是“归侨”和“海外华侨的家属”了,从而译文甲在英语读者面前大大歪曲了原文!
  7. 原文:上海市企业国有资产产权登记实施办法
  译文: 甲:Procedures of Shanghai Municipality on the Implementation of Enterprises' Property Right Over State- owned Assets
  -Supplement (Chinese-English) New Laws and Regulations Monthly, 1997.1,p.5
  乙: Procedures of Shanghai Municipality on the Implementation of Registration of Enterprises' Property Right Over State-owned Assets
  -lbid, p.18
  按:稀奇稀奇真稀奇,同样这项《办法》,同样刊载在同一期《新法规月刊》1997增刊1期中的该办法名称英译,却在第5页上是一个样,而在182页上却另是一个样了。
  其次,是法律(广义)名称大小写原有一定的规矩,奈译者时而不懂或不守规则,舛误起矣,如:
  8. Interim Procedures of Shanghai Municipality on the Intake of Experts From(应作from)abroad
  -Shanghai's foreign Economic Rules and Regulations(1993-1994), p.3
  9. Article l (purpose and Basis)
  The present Procedures are formulated in accordance with the “procedures on the Administration of Registration of Enterprises' Property Right Over(应作小写over) State-owned Assets”……
  -Supplement (Chinese-English) New Laws and Regulations Monthly, 1997, 1, p.183
  10. Measures of the Customs of the People's Republic of China Concerning the Administration of the Goods, Means of Transport, and Articles Carried by Individuals to be (应作大写Be) Brought into or out(须大写)of the Bonded Area of Outer Gaoqiao in Shanghai
  -Laws and Regulations of the People's Republic of China Governing Foreign-Related Matters, China Legal System Publishing House, Beijing 1991.7, p.11
三是介词(或准介词)之使用失当,如:查表示法律规范调整的对象,《新法规月刊》增刊1997年第1期共刊载15个条例、规定之类,几乎都通过介词“on”,只有一个例外用“for”:
  Regulations of Shanghai Municipality on the Administration of Mudflat
  Provisions of Shanghai Municipality on the Control of Hygiene of the Food Sold on Urban and Rural Fairs
  Regulations of Shanghai Municipality on Mother and Infant Health Care
  Regulations of Shanghai Municipality on the Flow of Talented Personnel
  Regulations of Shanghai Municipality on Drainage Administration
  Regulations on Shanghai Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone
  Rules of Shanghai Municipality for the Implementation of the Regulations on Family Planning (例外)
  Procedures of Shanghai Municipality on the Registration of Institutions
  Procedures of Shanghai Municipality on the Administration of Construction Project Contracting
  Procedures of Shanghai Municipality on the Administration of the Temporary Residence Permit for HongKong and Macao Residents and Overseas Chinese
  Procedures of Shanghai Municipality on the Granting of Land-use Right
  Procedures of Shanghai Municipality on Social Relief
  Procedures of Shanghai Municipality on the Management of Public Libraries
  Procedures of Shanghai Municipality on the Implementation of Enterprises' Property Right Over State-owned Assets
  Procedures of Shanghai Municipality on the Protection of Basic Farmland
其中的例外用“for”,含义与“on”不同:表示调整对象,不如由“on”表达来得贴切。其次“on”只有两个字母(而“for”由三个字母拼缀而成),更符合法律名称应尽量言简意赅,短小精悍的要求。遗憾的是,拾“on”而取“for”的往往还不少哩。例如上海远东出版社1994年版的Shanghai's Foreign Economic Rules and Regulations(1991-1992)一书共有十个“法规规章”,其中表示其调整对象而使用介词“on”的仅两例,而使用“for”的反而有七例:
  Procedures of Shanghai Municipality for the Implementation of……
  Interim Provisions for the Control of Shanghai Metal Exchange
  Interim Procedures of Shanghai Municipality for Encouragement of Nonlocal Investments in the Pudong New Area
  Procedures of the Customs of the People's Republic of China for the Control of Goods……
  Rules of the Shanghai Customs House for the Implementation of surveillance over, and Levy of or Exemption from……
  Procedures for Controls……
  Rules for the implementation of……
  为什么不用首选“on”而退而求其次用“for”呢?更何况还有三处是采用那累赘不堪的“Concerning”呢:
  Interim Procedures Concerning the Examination, Approval and ……
  以下弥足珍贵的一例,可以替代在“on”与“governing”之间左右摇摆、举棋不定而终于匆匆了事的译审行为:
  Regulations of Shanghai Municipality on Governing Trade Unions in Chinese-foreign Joint Ventures
  于兹场合,即使用了都尚不能算错之时,这些词(for/concerning/governing)绝对不能列为首选(governing一词很正宗,现在却并不多用,而在四十年代初笔者是奉之为首选的)—首选当然是“on”了。
四、存在的其他问题,如:
  1、多用不必用的governing/concerning,如:
  (1)原译:Interim Measures Concerning Strengthening Administration of Imports by Air
  -Laws and Regulations of the People's Republic of China Governing Foreign-Related Matters(1949-1990)
  China Legal Publishing House, Beijing 1991, p.1649
  改译:Interim Measures Strengthening the Regulation of Air Imports
  (2)原译:Laws Governing Foreign-Related Matters Promulgated Before……
  -Ibid., p.13
  改译:Foreign-related Laws Promulgated Before……
  2.宜前置的名词附加语不前置(1),宜后置的不后置(2)
  (1)原译:Regulations of Shanghai Municipality on Environmental Protection
  -Shanghai Foreign Economic Rules and Regulations (1993-1994), p.4
  改译: Shanghai's Environment Protection Regulations
  (2)原译:Regulations of Shanghai Municipality on Consumer Legitimate Rights and Interests Protection -Ibid.,p.5
  改译:Shanghais Regulations on the Protection of Consumers Legitimate Rights and Interests
3.应用复数而误用单数,如下例“Provision”系“Provisions”之误:
  Provision governing the(sic)Laying of Submarine Cables and Pipelines
  -Laws and Regulations of the People's Republic of China Governing Foreign-Related Matters
  (1949-1990), Vol.III, p.12
  4.重要词语误译,如:
  原文:上海外高桥保税区管理办法
  原译:Procedures of Shanghai Municipality for the Administration of the Shanghai Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone
  -Shanghai Foreign Economic Rules and Regulations(1982-1990), Shanghai people's Publishing House 1991, p. 563
  应译:Measures of Shanghai Municipality for the Administration of the Shanghai Waigaoqiao Bonded Area
  按:原译“Free Trade Zone”明明是“自由贸易区”而根本不是什么“保税区”:“保税区”明明不是什么“Free Trade Zone”而是“Bonded Area”,此乃常识的常识,译者有所不知!如此乱翻误译,其职业道德何在?耐人寻味!
  5. 译文漏字以致文理不通,如下列“Implementation”与“Foreign”之间漏了一个“of”
  Rules for the Implementation Foreign Exchange Control Relating to Individuals
  -Laws and Regulations of the People's Republic of China Governing Foreign-Related Matters, Vol. 2, p.9

  法律名称英译还存在这样或那样的问题,其根源有二:译者的知识结构尚欠合理,心态有待调整,幸勿等闲!
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