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北京证书翻译常用翻译技巧

英汉两种语言在句法、词汇、修辞等方面均存在着很大的差异,因此在进行英汉互译时必定会碰到良多灾题,需要有一定的翻译技巧作指导。常用的翻译技巧有增译法、省译法、转换法、拆句法、合并法、正译法、反译法、颠倒法、包孕法、插入法、重组法和综正当等。这些技巧不但可以运用于笔译之中,也可以运用于口译过程中,而且应该用得更加纯熟,由于口译工作的特点决定了舌人没有更多的时间进行思索。


 

1.




 

 

增译法:指根据英汉两种语言不同的思维方式、语言习惯和表达方式,在翻译时增添一些词、短句或句子,以便更正确地表达出原文所包含的意义。这种方式多半用在汉译英里。汉语无主句较多,而英语句子一般都要有主语,所以在翻译汉语无主句的时候,除了少数可用英语无主句、被动语态或"There


 

be…"结构来翻译以外,一般都要根据语境补出主语,使句子完整。英汉两种语言在名词、代词、连词、介词和冠词的使用方法上也存在很大差别。英语中代词使用频率较高,凡说到人的器官和归某人所有的或与某人有关的事物时,必需在前面加上物主代词。因此,在汉译英时需要补充物主代词,而在英译汉时又需要根据情况适当地删减。英语词与词、词组与词组以及句子与句子的逻辑关系一般用连词来表示,而汉语则往往通过上下文和语序来表示这种关系。因此,在汉译英时经常需要补充连词。英语句子离不开介词和冠词。另外,在汉译英时还要留意补充一些原文中暗含而没有明言的词语和一些概括性、注释性的词语,以确保译辞意思的完整。总之,通过增译,一是保证译文语法结构的完整,二是保证译辞意思的明确。如:


 

(1)What about calling him right away?


 

马上给他打个电话,你觉得如何?(增译主语和谓语)


 

(2)If only I could see the realization of the four modernizations.


 

要是我能看到四个现代化实现该有多好啊!(增译主句)


 

(3) Indeed, the reverse is true


 

实际情况刚好相反。(增译名词)


 

(4) 就是法西斯国家本国的人民也被剥夺了人权。


 

Even the people in the fascist countries were stripped of their human


 

rights.(增译物主代词)


 

(5)只许州官纵火,不许庶民点灯。


 

While the magistrates were free to burn down house, the common people were


 

forbidden to light lamps. (增译连词)


 

(6)这是我们两国人民的又一个共同点。


 

This is yet another common point between the people of our two


 

countries.(增译介词)


 

(7)在人权领域,中国反对以大欺小、以强凌弱。


 

In the field of human rights, China opposes the practice of the big


 

oppressing the small and the strong bullying the weak.(增译暗含词语)


 

(8)三个臭皮匠,合成一个诸葛亮。


 

Three cobblers with their wits combined equal Zhuge Liang the


 

mastermind.(增译注释性词语)


 

2.


 

省译法:这是与增译法相对应的一种翻译方法,即删去不符合目标语思维习惯、语言习惯和表达方式的词,以避免译文累赘。增译法的例句反之即可。又如:


 

(1)You will be staying in this hotel during your visit in Beijing.


 

你在北京访问期间就住在这家饭店里。(省译物主代词)


 

(2) I hope you will enjoy your stay here.


 

但愿您在这儿过得痛快。(省译物主代词)


 

(3)中国政府历来正视环境保护工作。


 

The Chinese government has always attached great importance to


 

environmental protection. (省译名词)


 

3.


 

转换法:指翻译过程中为了使译文符合目标语的表述方式、方法和习惯而对原句中的词类、句型和语态等进行转换。详细的说,就是在词性方面,把名词转换为代词、形容词、动词;把动词转换成名词、形容词、副词、介词;把形容词转换成副词和短语。在句子成分方面,把主语变成状语、定语、宾语、表语;把谓语变成主语、定语、表语;把定语变成状语、主语;把宾语变成主语。在句型方面,把并列句变成复合句,把复合句变成并列句,把状语从句变成定语从句。在语态方面,可以把主动语态变为被动语态。如:


 

(1) 我们学院受教委和市政府的双重领导。


 

Our institute is co-administrated by the States Education Commission and


 

the municipal government. (名词滚动词)


 

(2)Too much exposure to TV programs will do great harm to the eyesight of


 

children.


 

孩子们看电视过多会大大地损坏视力。(名词滚动词)


 

(3)因为我们实行了改革开放政策,我国的综合国力有了显著的增强。


 

Thanks to the introduction of our reform and opening policy, our


 

comprehensive national strength has greatly improved. (动词转名词)


 

 (4) I'm all for you opinion.


 

我完全赞成你的意见。(介词滚动词)


 

(5)The reform and opening policy is supported by the whole Chinese people.


 

改革开放政策受到了全中国人民的拥护。(动词转名词)


 

(6)In his article the author is critical of man's negligence toward his


 

environment.


 

作者在文章中,对人类疏忽自身环境作了批评。(形容词转名词)


 

(7)In some of the European countries, the people are given the biggest


 

social benefits such as medical insurance.


 

在有些欧洲国家里,人民享受最广泛的社会福利,如医疗保险等。(被动语态转主动语态)


 

(8)时间不早了,我们回去吧!


 

We don't have much time left. Let's go back. (句型转换)


 

(9)学生们都应该德、智、体全面发展。


 

All the students should develop morally, intellectually and physically.


 

(名词转副词)


 

4.


 

拆句法和合并法:这是两种相对应的翻译方法。拆句法是把一个长而复杂的句子拆译成若干个较短、较简朴的句子,通常用于英译汉;合并法是把若干个短句合并成一个长句,一般用于汉译英。汉语夸大意合,结构较疏松,因此简朴句较多;英语夸大形合,结构较严密,因此长句较多。所以汉译英时要根据需要留意利用连词、分词、介词、不定式、定语从句、独立结构等把汉语短句连成长句;而英译汉时又经常要在原句的关系代词、关系副词、主谓连接处、并列或转折连接处、后续成分与主体的连接处,以及意群结束处将长句堵截,译成汉语分句。这样就可以基本留存英语语序,顺译全句,顺应现代汉语是非句相替、单复句相间的句法修辞原则。如:


 

(1) Increased cooperation with China is in the interests of the United


 

States.


 

同中国加强合作,符合美国的利益。(在主谓连接处拆译)


 

(2)I wish to thank you for the incomparable hospitality for which the


 

Chinese people are justly famous throughout the world.


 

我要感谢你们无与伦比的盛情款待。中国人民恰是以这种热情好客而闻明世界的。(在定语从句前拆译)


 

(3)This is particularly true of the countries of the commonwealth, who see


 

Britain's membership of the Community a guarantee that the policies of the


 

community will take their interests into account


 

英联邦各国尤其如斯,它们以为英国加入欧共体,将能保证欧共体的政策照顾到它们的利益。(在定语从句前拆译)


 

(4)中国事个大国,百分之八十的人口从事农业,但耕地只占土地面积的十分之一,其余为山脉、森林、城镇和其他用地。


 

China is a large country with four-fifths of the population engaged in


 

agriculture, but only one tenth of the land is farmland, the rest being


 

mountains, forests and places for urban and other uses.(合译)


 

5.


 

正译法和反译法:这两种方法通常用于汉译英,偶然也用于英译汉。所谓正译,是指把句子按照与汉语相同的语序或表达方式译成英语。所谓反译则是指把句子按照与汉语相反的语序或表达方式译成英语。正译与反译经常具有同义的效果,但反译往往更符合英语的思维方式和表达习惯。因此比较隧道。如:


 

(1)在美国,人人都能买到枪。


 

In the United States, everyone can buy a gun. (正译)


 

In the United States, guns are available to everyone. (反译)


 

(2)你可以从因特网上获得这一信息。


 

You can obtain this information on the Internet. (正译)


 

This information is accessible/available on the Internet. (反译)


 

(3)他溘然想到了一个新主意。


 

Suddenly he had a new idea. (正译)


 

He suddenly thought out a new idea. (正译)


 

A new idea suddenly occurred to/struck him. (反译)


 

(4)他仍旧没有弄懂我的意思。


 

He still could not understand me. (正译)


 

Still he failed to understand me. (反译)


 

(5)不管如何,她算不上一位思维灵敏的学生。


 

She can hardly be rated as a bright student. (正译)


 

She is anything but a bright student. (反译)


 

(6) Please withhold the document for the time being.


 

请暂时扣下这份文件。(正译)


 

请暂时不要发这份文件。(反译)


 

6.


 

颠倒法:在汉语中,定语润饰语和状语润饰语往往位于被润饰语之前;在英语中,很多润饰语经常位于被润饰语之后,因此翻译时往往要把原文的语序倒置过来。颠倒法通常用于英译汉,


 

即对英语长句按照汉语的习惯表达法进行前后调换,按意群或进行全部颠倒,原则是使汉语译句铺排符合现代汉语论理叙事的一般逻辑顺序。有时颠倒法也用于汉译英。如:


 

(1)At this moment, through the wonder of telecommunications, more people


 

are seeing and hearing what we say than on any other occasions in the


 

whole history of the world.


 

此时此刻,通过现代通讯手段的奇迹,看到和听到我们讲话的人比整个世界历史上任何其他这样的场合都要多。(部门颠倒)


 

(2)I believe strongly that it is in the interest of my countrymen that


 

Britain should remain an active and energetic member of the European


 

Community.


 

我坚信,英国依然应该是欧共体中的一个积极的和布满活力的成员,这是符合我国人民利益的。(部门颠倒)


 

(3)改革开放以来,中国发生了巨大的变化。


 

Great changes have taken place in China since the introduction of the


 

reform and opening policy.(全部颠倒)


 

7.包孕法:这种方法多用于英译汉。所谓包孕是指在把英语长句译成汉语时,把英语后置成分按照汉语的正常语序放在中央词之前,使润饰成分在汉语句中形成前置包孕。但润饰成分不宜过长,否则会形成拖沓或造成汉语句子成分在连接上的纠葛。如:


 

(1)You are the representative of a country and of a continent to which


 

China feels particularly close. 您是一位来自于使中国倍感亲切的国家和大洲的代表。


 

(2)What brings us together is that we have common interests which


 

transcend those differences. 使我们走到一起的,是我们有超越这些不合的共同利益。


 

8


 

.插入法:指把难以处理的句子成分用破折号、括号或前后逗号插入译句中。这种方法主要用于笔译中。偶然也用于口译中,即用同位语、插入语或定语从句来处理一些解释性成分。如:


 

假如说公布收回香港就会像夫人说的"带来灾害性的影响",那我们要勇敢地面临这个灾害,做出决议计划。


 

If the announcement of the recovery of Hong Kong would bring about, as


 

Madam put it, "disastrous effects," we will face that disaster squarely


 

and make a new policy decision.


 

9.


 

重组法:指在进行英译汉时,为了使译文流畅和更符合汉语叙事论理的习惯,在捋清英语长句的结构、弄懂英语原意的基础上,彻底挣脱原文语序和句子形式,对句子进行重新组合。如:


 

Decision must be made very rapidly; physical endurance is tested as much


 

as perception, because an enormous amount of time must be spent making


 

certain that the key figures act on the basis of the same information and


 

purpose.


 

必需把大量时间花在确保枢纽人物均根据统一情报和目的行事,而这一切对身体的耐力和思维能力都是一大考验。因此,一旦考虑成熟,决议计划者就应迅速做出决议计划。


 

10.


 

综正当:是指单用某种翻译技巧无法译出时,着眼篇章,以逻辑分析为基础,同时使用转换法、颠倒法、增译法、省译法、拆句法等多种翻译技巧的方法。如:


 

How can the European Union contribute to the development of a European


 

film and television program industry which is competitive in the world


 

market, forward-looking and capable of radiating the influence of European


 

culture and of creating jobs in Europe?


 

欧洲同盟应该怎样做才能对欧洲的片子电视产业有所贡献,使它在国际市场上具有竞争能力,使它有能力施展欧洲文化的影响,并且能够在欧洲创造更多的就业机会呢?北京证书翻译

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